A Healthy Scientist Makes Greener Science

By Kiril Fedorov, Member-at-Large for the GCI

Do you remember the time you had spilled your reaction vessel on the floor, over distilled the solution, broke glassware, or had another accident in the laboratory?  Accidents happen to everyone so it is likely to happen to you once or twice in the laboratory. A problem emerges when these incidents become consistent, which is clearly not a green practice for scientists.

For example, let’s say you had a long week of reactions and you destroyed the whole product of your main reaction. This not only means you have destroyed your product, it also means you have wasted the following items: solvents, electrical energy, glassware (if broken or contaminated), single use items (pipette tips, napkins, scintillation vials etc.).

Kiril blog_picture

Comparison of materials required for a normal vs. tired student.


Although accidents are random, their frequency may not be. Do you remember why many of those mistakes happened?   There could be many reasons but there is one in particular I would like to highlight. It is your health. First of all people who are healthy are less prone to mistakes and as a result are more efficent.1,2,3 For example when nurses were tested on their work on long shifts, the majority of mistakes that happened were at the end of the shift when they were most tired. You are no different as a scientist, engineer, journalist, editor or any other student. Each morning there is a long line at Tim Hortons for coffee to keep those people who are drinking it alert. Also, many people grab fast food at lunch, eat too fast, and experience a really sleepy afternoon due to high fat load or sugar crash. This leaves people tired, less aware, and as a result prone to mistakes.

Several articles highlight how much loss to the economy is due to poor health. Also people with poor health have to take more medications and get more blood tests, which again is less green.

So what can you do?

The 7 rules of green laboratory:

  1. Be punctual

If you are in a rush anxiety rises, mineral levels drop 4-7 and mistake levels increase.

  1. Prioritize

When tasks are organized you are less likely to make a mistake and again lower anxiety due to less multitasking.

  1. Sleep at night

Night is for sleeping for people! Do not stay out late if your experimental work starts early the next day. Only stay awake if you really have to. If you are a night owl, then maybe your schedule is different, but remember if you are consistently tired or need coffee it is not very efficient.

  1. Eat healthy

No need to be a health lunatic but improving your diet always works to your advantage. Let’s face it: stomach aches, sugar withdrawal, headaches, heartburn or other problems keep you distracted from lab work.  You are significantly prone to mistakes.

  1. Exercise

Get off your seat from the lab every 40-50 minutes and stretch for 10 minutes. Go outside and breathe some fresh air while walking. It will get your blood pumping and get your brain working better. (You might invent a greener reaction)

  1. Follow safety instructions

Remember it is not just about an instructor or your supervisor who enforce safety rules, but yours and other people’s health. Take your safety seriously! Think of it this way: after all the years of training as a scientist (very costly on chemicals) suddenly your health and efficiency drops and you are about to discover something amazing.

  1. Have fun

Bored, angry or sad people tend to be more prone to mistakes. (Common sense). If you believe in Karma this is quite self-explanatory. But for those who don’t, think about the times something did not work and likely you would give up or break something. With a little happy thought you can think more clearly and everything gets solved better. Just try it, I am telling you it works.


Here is an example of a reaction and the cost of avoidable mistakes:

Synthesis of Moclobemide

 Compounds used Amount required (used by an alert student) Amount used  for a tired student


Amount used  for  a repeated experiment
4-(2aminoethyl)morpholine 0.5 ml 0.5-1 1 ml
4-chlorobenzoyl chloride 0.48 ml 0.48-1 1 ml
Triethyl amine 20 ml 20 -40 40 ml
10% aq ammonia 10 ml 10-20 20 ml
Dicloromehtane 2X10 ml (2-4)X10 4X10ml
Isopropanol ~20 ml 20-40ml 40 ml


Other compounds/items Amount estimates
Water (for glassware washing) 1-20 L
Paper towels 1-30
Electrical power 0.5hr X 4kw+ 0.5 1.5 KW= 2.75 – 5.50 KWh used
Syringe 1
Acetone 10-30 ml (washing NMR tubes)
Magnesium sulfate A few grams



1. Health and safety executive survey United Kingdom http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/dayslost.htm

2. Tired Doctors More Prone to Errors
Tired Doctors More Prone to Errors

3. Patient care may be at risk from tired staff on long shifts. Nurs Manag (Harrow) 2015;22(5):6. https://hbr.org/2015/08/the-research-is-clear-long-hours-backfire-for-people-and-for-companies

4. Sartori SB, Whittle N, Hetzenauer A, Singewald N. Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: Modulation by therapeutic drug treatment. Neuropharmacology 2012; 62(1):304-312.

5. Uteva AG, Pimenov LT. Magnesium deficiency and anxiety-depressive syndrome in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Adv. Gerontol. 2012; 25(3):427-432.

6. Grases G, Pérez-Castello JA, Sanchis P, Casero A, Perelló J, Isern B, et al. Anxiety and stress among science students. Study of calcium and magnesium alterations. Magnes. Res. 2006; 19(2):102-106.

7. Singewald N, Sinner C, Hetzenauer A, Sartori SB, Murck H. Magnesium-deficient diet alters depression- and anxiety-related behavior in mice – Influence of desipramine and Hypericum perforatum extract. Neuropharmacology 2004; 47(8):1189-1197.


Waste Awareness Campaign

By Karl Demmans, Workshop Coordinator for the GCI

Welcome back to the GCI’s monthly updates about our recent endeavors and findings in green research! Today I’d like to discuss the efforts put forth by various faculty and graduate students over the past eight months to collect and distribute data about the amount of waste produced in the Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories, the main building for the Department of Chemistry at UofT. Our hope is that once students are presented with this information, they will be more conscious about their chemical procedures and consider alternate green methods to help reduce waste. For an example of the types of data we have collected, take a look at the poster found below.

Waste Poster GCI

Waste data for Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories (Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto).

In Lash Miller, waste collection occurs every Friday. Each research group gathers their labelled waste containers and brings them to  our waste department for sorting and temporary storage, before eventual disposal.  The rather colourful chart in the poster displays the amount of solid or solvent waste, broken down for each chemistry discipline, concluding with the percent of total waste each discipline produces, as well as the type of waste that is made.

The colour gradient of the five waste categories denotes the combined environmental and economic concerns ranging from solid decontaminated waste (‘best’) to acidic waste (worst). Overall, the waste picture for Lash Miller looks pretty good, with only 9% of the total waste produced in the building coming from the two red categories (acidic and chlorinated). By specifically targeting these types of waste for reduction, we can continue to improve and make the waste profile of our department even better.

For Lash Miller graduate students, if you’d like to know specifically how much waste your group is producing, send an inquiry e-mail to green [at] chem.utoronto.ca!

Lastly, the final part of the poster describes what each type of waste is, and explains the disposal process. The topic of how chemical waste is disposed of was recently discussed during our last GCI seminar. Click here to read our Chemical Waste FAQs!

In the upcoming months there will be another poster displaying the percent reductions in waste produced per discipline, to see how graduate students react to the current information. Thanks for stopping by to learn about our Waste Awareness Campaign and how we are helping to reduce our environmental footprint.